#BtGPracSafe Launch of Guidance & Safety/Privacy Info

The launch of BtG and NUM ‘Practice Guidance for Working With Online Sex Workers’ and BtG ‘Safety and Privacy Info for Online Sex Workers’ were launched at #BtGPracSafe on 12th September 2018 at the University of Leicester.

Over 50 delegates came together to mark the end of Beyond the Gaze 3 year action research project and to discuss the resources.

Teela Sanders opened the event reflecting on the achievements of BtG. She showcased the final resources being launched. Key achievements have included;

  • Largest data sets in the world on online sex work; sex workers survey (n=641), customers (n=1,345).
  • Significant academic outputs including book and open access journal articles.
  • Responding  to media requests and driven evidence based media pieces.
  • Active website and twitter which will carry on for foreseeable future.
  • Practice guidance and safety resources.
  • Sitting on NPCC police working group.
  • Sharing findings and learning with Home office and National Crime Agency.
  • Made links and developments with key adult platform websites
  • Over 20 training events in 2018 with police forces  with NUM.
  • Practitioners forum gained momentum over 8 events
  • Continued participatory action research model.

Luca Stephenson from International Committee for the Rights of Sex Workers in Europe, gave a powerful presentation on developments around sex work policy in Europe. This included the harmful impacts of the criminalisation of purchasing sexual services in France, evidenced by a recent report by Medcins du Monde. He discussed the importance of menaingful sex worker inclusion in the design and delivery of services for sex workers in all sectors and flagged the newly launched campaign ‘Decrim Now’.

The BtG provided an overview of the safety/privacy info and practice guidance. Raven Bowen new CEO of National Ugly Mugs with Del Campbell, provided an update on NUM and their work with BtG.

Lively discussion groups took place around themes and issues with the resources.

BtG took the opportunity to thank sex workers, projects, practitioners, police and other stakeholders who contributed to the research throughout the three years. We could not have done it without you.

BtG- Launch of Practice Guidance & Safety/Privacy Info

The final BtG event is taking place on 12th September 2018 at the University of Leicester. #BtGPracSafe will see the launch of our ‘Practice Guidance for Working With Online Sex Workers’ and our ‘Safety & Privacy Info for Online Sex Workers’. The team are very proud and excited to launch these useful resources for sex workers and practitioners.

Professor Teela Sanders will open the event, followed by a keynote from Luca Stephenson (International Committee for the Rights of Sex Workers in Europe, then an overview of the guidance and information resources by the research team and a presentation from Raven Bowen and Del Campbell from National Ugly Mugs.

A number of discussion groups will take place based around the guidance and safety/privacy information.



Introducing Safety and Privacy for Online Sex Workers – Forthcoming info

The Beyond the Gaze project is a three year research project in its final year and we announced our findings earlier in the year. You can read about some of those  in free briefings on our website.

To accompany our research and to ensure that we make a positive contribution to the working lives of sex workers well into the future, we are producing safety information intended to support sex workers in their working life. Included in the safety information are top tips from industry professionals about how sex workers can  keep  safe day-to-day in their jobs.  This information is based on strategies used for safety, shared by the n=641 online sex workers who took part in the Beyond the Gaze survey and the  n=62 online sex workers who helped us by taking part in an interview.   The soon to be released  safety information for sex workers has been written by: sex workers (current and retired), sex work researchers and in the later stages of development BtG consulted other professionals  for example those who support sex workers who have been  victims of crime.

We are very excited about this collaborative project and we really hope you enjoy this video which introduces some of the BtG team and others who have contributed to  parts of the forthcoming safety information.

More info:

The information will offer tips for: escorts, doms, agency workers, parlour workers, cammers and any sex worker who uses the internet to run their business.

The safety info will go on the Beyond the Gaze website and National Ugly Mug’s website. Plus we will be producing an online and downloadable document that will include:

  • Keeping safe online
  • Protecting your privacy
  • Safety measures when working
  • Who to go to when things go wrong
  • And so much more!

Want to know more? Please sign up to our newsletter and we will let you know as soon as the safety info is available https://www.beyond-the-gaze.com/about/ 

Please feel free to share this post to your networks.

Matt Valentine-Chase, Researcher, BtG Team

BtG Presenting at Law & Society Annual Meeting, Toronto June 7-10 2018

Professor Jane Scoular and Professor Teela Sanders will be representing Beyond the Gaze at the Law & Society Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada, June 7-10, 2018. For further details about the event go to: http://www.lawandsociety.org/Toronto2018/toronto2018.html

Teela will be presenting work on: ‘Risking safety and rights: online sex work, crimes and ‘blended safety repertories’ and  Jane on ‘ Beyond the Gaze: law and the modern day sex industry’  These papers will sit in an exciting panel on internet based sex work and will be accompanied by work from US researchers Kate Hausbeck Korgan and Angela Jones.


‘This is what the report on ‘pop-up brothels’ missed out’- Dr Kate Lister

BtG is very pleased to be able to share this blog feature by Dr Kate Lister, Leeds Beckett University @literaturepeep and the fabulous @WhoresofYore    This was originally an article published by Kate  in Inews on 23rd May 2018.  https://inews.co.uk/opinion/this-is-what-the-report-on-pop-up-brothels-missed-out/

It formed  a response to the All Party Parliamentary Group on Prostitution’s report Behind Closed Doors based on their ‘Inquiry’ into ‘Pop Up Brothels.  Beyond the Gaze had been very alarmed to read the report and it’s recommendations as the ‘inquiry’ had ignored the data from BtG (the largest study of online sex work in the UK) and from sex worker organisations, ignored the thousands and thousands of independent sex workers who use online for their marketing, safety, networking with other sex workers and accessing information and support, particularly peer support.  The inquiry has demonstrated a lack of rigor in data collection and  transparency about how the evidence submitted to them has been assessed. Their calls for the criminalisation  of purchasing sexual services and the banning of online adult services advertising would be a damaging duo of law which would undermine sex worker safety, independent working, livelihoods, support networks and would not address the exploitation that some sex workers experience.  Kate covers many of the limitations and problems with the report.

‘This is what the report on ‘pop-up brothels’ missed out’- Dr Kate Lister

Read more at: https://inews.co.uk/opinion/this-is-what-the-report-on-pop-up-brothels-missed-out/

‘Monday saw the publication of the All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on Prostitution and the Global Sex Trade’s report into sexual exploitation in England and Wales – titled ‘Behind Closed Doors’. If you skip to the endnotes section of this report that details ‘evidence collection’, you will see that the APPG requested and received written evidence from numerous groups, including the Sex Work Research Hub – a network of 150 researchers and academics across a range of Universities and disciplines working on sex work, and sexual exploitation. As a board member of the Sex Work Research Hub I can confirm that the hub did indeed provide detailed data on so-called ‘popup brothels’ and online sex work to the APPG, and I can also confirm that virtually all of it was ignored in the final report itself. Data on sex work was also gathered from National Ugly Mugs, the English Collective of Prostitutes, SCOT-PEP, Beyond the Gaze, and Basis Yorkshire. The vast majority of which was ignored, or buried in the reference notes, in favour of a handful of case studies, cherrypicked or anecdotal evidence, and an aggressive anti-sex work agenda.

The data contradicting their report

But why would a parliamentary group ignore data that directly contradicts the final findings of their report? Because this inquiry was never about presenting an unbiased report into modern sex work. It has always been about validating pre-existing political agendas. ‘If this were an academic research group, the demonstrable evidence of prejudice and bias within the ‘group officers’ would make it extremely unlikely to get past an initial ethics committee.’ The ‘officers’ of the self-appointed APPG include Conservative MP Fiona Bruce, who is an Evangelical Alliance council member, sits on the All Party Parliamentary Pro-Life Group, and has long campaigned to criminalise the clients of sex workers. Labour MP Thangam Debbonaire, who once argued that decriminalisation of sex work could result in women being raped and not being able to do anything about it. Lord McColl of Dulwich, whose anti-sex work agenda is well known, and who introduced a private member’s bill to prohibit the advertising of prostitution, in 2015. Labour MP Jess Phillips, who criticised Jeremy Corbyn for his views on decriminalising sex work, and called sex work ‘a known violence against women’. Labour MP Sarah Champion, an outspoken abolitionist who had to resign her position as shadow equalities minister after controversially claiming that ‘Britain has a problem with British Pakistani men raping and exploiting white girls’, and Labour MP Gavin Shuker, who is also Vice-Chair of the Christians in Parliament APPG, and has held the chair for the APPG into prostitution since 2014, when he published the group’s last report into sex work in Britain. They clearly have an agenda. If this were an academic research group, the demonstrable evidence of prejudice and bias within the ‘group officers’ would make it extremely unlikely to get past an initial ethics committee. Quite why the APPG felt the need to publish this inquiry when the Home Affairs Committee published a comprehensive report into UK sex work back in 2016, and recommended full decriminalisation, is unclear. It is very disappointing that the APPG did not engage with or reference the considerable peer-reviewed data submitted to them by members of the sex work research. Not to mention annoying when you consider the work involved in responding to each of their questions.

What is a pop-up brothel?

But, so that data and time is not wasted, I will share some of that research here instead. There are two main points of concern in the APPG inquiry, that are flagged up as recent developments in the sex trade: ‘popup brothels’ and websites where sex workers advertise. So, the first thing that needs addressing is what is a ‘popup brothel’? ‘The reality is that there is nothing new about a ‘popup brothel’ apart from a sensationalistic name which has garnered considerable media attention’ According to the APPG report, it is ‘a term commonly used to describe brothels which are set up for a short period of time in residential properties’. The reality is that there is nothing new about a ‘pop-up brothel’ apart from a sensationalistic name which has garnered considerable media attention. The APPG inquiry makes the assumption that all popup brothels are inherently exploitative and associated with organised crime. This is simply not true and there is little evidence to suggest otherwise. Independent sex workers regularly travel throughout the country, advertising their services online, and stay at hotels, or hire an apartment at each destination. This is known as going ‘on tour’ and is a well-established practice. To stay safe, many sex workers like to tour together or share rented premises, and under UK law any premises where more than one person is offering a sexual service is legally recognised as a ‘brothel’, albeit on the short-term (pop-up) basis.


A shocking lack of understanding

Beyond the Gaze was a three year a project (2015-2018) into internet-based sex work, that was funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (their data has been almost entirely ignored by the APPG as well.) Beyond the Gaze found that many independent sex workers, both UK citizens and migrant workers, travelled for work regularly, either for day appointments across their region of residence or to other regions for work opportunities, or staying in hotels or renting a property for work. To make the assumption that anyone selling sex from a short-term rented property must be coerced reveals a shocking lack of understanding of the modern sex industry. And it’s not the only assumption the report makes. Read more I survived prostitution. This is why I want the buying of sex to be made illegal The issue of migrant sex work is returned to again and again – specifically, migrants from Romania. The report claims that 86 per cent of women working in brothels in Leicestershire in 2016 were Romanian, and that 75 per cent of women working in brothels in Northumbria between 2016-18 were Romanian. What’s more, in 2018, a ‘representative of the inquiry’ accompanied police to a brothel raid in Cambridge, where they found that the women there were (wait for it) – Romanian. They also found that none of these women actually wanted help from the police or held information about organised crime. But still – they were Romanian.

Sex workers use websites to stay safe

But being Romanian is not proof of sex trafficking. The Office for National Statistics records that there were 413,000 Romanians and Bulgarians living and working in Britain last year alone. A 2013 comprehensive study on ‘Migrant Workers in the UK Sex Industry’, carried out by Professor Nicola Mai, interviewed 100 migrant sex workers and found 13 per cent felt that they had been exploited and 6 per cent had been trafficked. A 2011 study of Eastern European women selling sex in indoor locations in London showed that 7 per cent of women interviewed had been coerced into selling sex. Of course any number of trafficking victims is too much, no matter how small a percentage it is. Those involved in coercion and abuse must be punished to the full extent of the law. But, it is simply not the case that the majority of migrant sex workers have been trafficked into the country. ‘The report demands that websites must ‘be held legally accountable for the sexual exploitation they enable and profit from.’ The next area of concern for the APPG inquiry are the websites that sex workers use to advertise their services. The report demands that websites must ‘be held legally accountable for the sexual exploitation they enable and profit from’. Quite why the findings of Beyond the Gaze were overlooked here when they have conducted the largest research project into online sex work in the UK to date is beyond me. But, perhaps it is because Beyond the Gaze found that sex workers use these websites to stay safe, independent and off the streets. But then, one of the most troubling aspects of the APPG report are the claims women working away from the street is somehow a bad thing as ‘public visibility of women in street prostitution can increase the likelihood they will come into contact with external agencies’. Far from enabling abuse, online sites allow sex workers to screen potential clients. Professor Scott Cunningham of Baylor University has been researching online sex work and the correlations with violent crime for years and published his data in 2017. He found that after Craigslist created an ‘erotic services’ section, the rate of female homicides in US fell by 17 percent. The reason was simple. Sex workers could screen their clients and share information.

The Nordic model

Predictably, the APPG calls for a criminalisation of clients, the so-called ‘Nordic Model’ that has been in effect in Northern Ireland for the last year. But, under the Nordic Model violent crime reported against sex workers in Northern Ireland has risen by 77 per cent, and similar data is now coming out of France, which adopted the Nordic model in 2016. In fact, none of the data that shows end demand tactics make working conditions more dangerous for sex workers has been included in the final report. In many places, the report is so out of touch, its laughable. But, the inquiries’ neglect to bring in the sex worker voice, print and engage with the data provided by the leading sex worker rights organisations is no laughing matter. In the entire report, only one ex-sex worker gets a voice; Mia de Faoite, a core partner in the ‘Turn Off the Red Light’ campaign which resulted in the Nordic model being introduced to Northern Ireland in 2017. No current sex worker voices are included. No voices speaking for decriminalisation are included. No data that supports decriminalisation is included. It’s not so much what goes on ‘Behind Closed Doors’ that is the issue here, but what goes on inside closed minds. More from i:

Read the original article at: https://inews.co.uk/opinion/i-survived-prostitution-this-is-why-i-want-the-buying-of-sex-to-be-made-illegal/


BtG Contributing to Research Symposium – Understanding Sex Work: Contemporary Research from Wales & ‘Beyond the Gaze’ – 6th June 2018 – University of Swansea

Understanding Sex Work: Contemporary Research from Wales and ‘Beyond the Gaze’.

BtG is pleased to contribute to a Sex Work Research Symposium being delivered in collaboration by the Consortium for Sexuality Studies (CSS), Hillary Rodham Clinton School of Law, Swansea University (consortium-sexual-studies.swan.ac.uk) and the All Wales Sex Work Safety and Support Group.

Date: Wednesday 6th June 2018. Registration is from 12.45pm, with the Symposium starting at 1pm until 3.30pm.

Venue: Hillary Rodham Clinton School of Law, Richard Price Building, Singleton Campus, Swansea University, SA2 8PP.

This event brings together the findings from three contemporary studies that seek to develop understandings about the changing nature of sex work.

The CSS brings together partners from practice and academia across Wales, the UK and Europe with the aim of establishing innovative research projects across three interlinked themes:

  • Sex work
  • Sex and the Life Course
  • Sexual Exploitation

The aim of the All Wales Sex Work Safety & Support Group is to provide leadership and strategic direction in maintaining the safety of those who choose to work in the sex industry while protecting and assisting those who are exploited and want to exit.

Confirmed speakers and presentation titles include:

  • Behind the screen: key findings, policy and practice implications from ‘Beyond the Gaze’ a large scale study of online sex work in the UK’ Dr Rosie Campbell OBE Beyond the Gaze, Leicester University
  • Pathways into Street Sex Work Dr Rachel Swann, Cardiff University
  • How sex work identities shape and inform transactional sex in Cardiff Massage Parlours: Reflections of the support and advocacy requirements of sex worker’s Sam Hanks, Swansea University

Who should attend the symposium?

This symposium is an opportunity for Police & Crime Commissioners, senior Police Officers & those responsible for Community Safety, Adult Safeguarding & Housing in statutory agencies to discuss and debate the changing landscape around the vulnerability of those working in the sex industry so that service planning and commissioning meets the needs of this client group. It will also be of interest to front line professional/service provider or organisation academics/researchers, who are interested in the responses to sex work.

How do I register?

This is a free event, but places are limited. Places will be allocated on a first come first served basis.  To register go to: https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/symposiwm-ymchwil-gwaith-rhywsex-work-research-symposi-tickets-44600075025


If you have any questions please contact, Debbie Jones Deborah.a.jones@swansea.ac.uk

BtG Presenting-Josephine Butler Society Seminar- 11th April 2018

On 11th April 2018  Beyond the Gaze  are presenting some key findings from the Beyond the Gaze study at a Seminar Hosted by the Josephine Butler Society being held in central London between 2pm and 5pm.  BtG will present alongside other speakers addressing a number of issues related to contemporary prostitution,  law and practice. Those interested in attending should email: sally.cass@btinternet.com  from the Josephine Butler Society.

Voices from the Sex Industry – Launch of Beyond the Gaze Short Film

Beyond the Gaze is the largest study to date of UK online sex work, examining the working conditions, safety and policing of the industry by researchers from the Universities of Leicester and Strathclyde. A short film based on findings from the research has be produced by  Hayley Evans and Amy Cory of the University of Leicester, with contributions from people who are current or former sex workers who have worked in the online sector of the UK sex industry. To mark the public launch of the film we at the Department of Criminology, University of Leicester, are hosting a launch event. This will take place:

Date: Wednesday 21 March 2018, 5-8pm
Venue: Henry Wellcome Building, University of Leicester

‘Beyond the Gaze: Online Sex Work in the 21st Century’ (12 mins) touches on themes of; the use of online and digital technology by sex workers, safety,  stigma, impact of law, peer support and advocacy.  The film will be screened alongside two other films produced by UK researchers/film makers about various aspects of the UK. Indeed we are very pleased that sociologist, ethnographer and film maker Professor Nick Mai (University of Kingston) and Dr Scarlett Redman are able to join us and share their work.

Film screenings  will include:

Beyond the Gaze: Online Sex Work in the 21st Century (12 mins click the title for link to short trailer! )

Sex Work in the UK (15 mins), Dr Scarlett Redman








Normal (48 mins), Professor Nick Mai, University of Kingston

These screenings will be followed by a short panel discussion and wine reception. Register with Eventbrite via the link below and join us for an evening of film screenings,  discussion and wine reception as part of the ‘Beyond the Gaze’ project.


We will be honoring the memory of Laura Lee at this event.


Laura Lee- remembering an inspirational woman and sex worker rights campaigner

The Beyond the Gaze Team were deeply saddened to learn about the passing of   Laura Lee on 6th February 2018. She was a fierce campaigner for sex worker rights and a phenomenal  woman.

Indeed since the announcement of Laura’s death many have  expressed  shock and sadness at the loss of an inspirational woman and sex worker rights campaigner.  The tributes to Laura have been a testimony to her work and the impression she made on people. Many individuals and organisations have been posting condolences and statements on social media and more widely online paying tribute to her work. Here are links to just a small number of such statements:

Statement from Sex Workers Alliance Ireland: https://twitter.com/SWAIIreland

Joint statement from Scot-Pep and Umbrella Lane:  http://www.scot-pep.org.uk/news/memoriam-laura-lee

Joint statement from ECP and SWARM: http://prostitutescollective.net/2018/02/rest-power-laura-lee/

Statement ‘In Memory of Laura Lee’ from National Ugly Mugs: https://uknswp.org/um/about/laura-lee/


Her solicitor Ciaran Moynagh  who had worked with Laura  on  her case challenging the law which criminalised the purchase of sexual services,  introduced in 2015 in  Northern Ireland ,  stated:

“Laura courageously fronted a campaign and judicial review which sought to defend and protect thousands of sex workers who do not have a voice. In the face of much opposition she maintained great dignity. Laura Lee will be remembered as one of this country’s most fearless human rights advocates and we are committed to continuing her work.”

Laura was arguing  that the law breached her human rights entitlements to privacy and freedom from discrimination and she stressed how this law undermined sex worker safety. She had fought hard to win the right for this judicial review and hopes were high. Taking on such a high profile case as a sex worker in Ireland had lead to deep respect for her and she served as a beacon of hope and strength for many sex workers.

Dr Brooke Magnanti (author of Belle de Jour)  tweeted  ‘The work Laura Lee did meant so much to so many. To say Laura Lee was a titan in the sex worker’s rights movement does not begin to do her justice. This is a devastating loss’.  ‘She put herself on the line in a way few have the guts to do, and there was no finer moment than when she went in alone against the NI Justice Committee and, despite their bullying, emerged head held high’.

We were privileged that Laura was a champion for BtG, she promoted the research from the start, contributed to the BtG short film (soon to be public, and which will now be in memory of Laura)  and this was just one small part of the projects/causes/initiatives/organisations and people that she gave her support, time and energies to.

Much of the media coverage of Laura’s passing has been respectful  and has acknowledge her contribution to sex worker rights in Ireland,  the UK and Beyond (e.g.  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-43001841   https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/northern-ireland/pals-mourn-sex-worker-laura-lee-who-fought-to-quash-northern-ireland-prostitution-law-36584457.html  )   As part of her campaigning work and to raise awareness about rights issues  for sex workers and the need for decriminalisation, she did much social and wider media work plus public speaking, she  was such an articulate and effective communicator who spoke with great passionate. We saw just one example of this at the Beyond the Gaze launch on 23rd January 2018 in Manchester where Laura spoke  with great passion about the impact of  law on sex worker safety, working conditions and rights, in the audience were sex workers, activists, police, health/support project workers and academics.  The atmosphere in the room was electric, she got a standing ovation. Such contributions mean  there is a record and legacy of her work, with her strong voice living on. Here are links to just a small selection of some of the media pieces Laura contributed to:

*Featured in the Guardian:  https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/feb/05/sex-worker-activist-laura-lee-northern-ireland-law-challenge-interview     https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/mar/24/should-it-be-illegal-to-pay-for-sex-work-law-northern-ireland

*The Irish Times:   https://www.irishtimes.com/life-and-style/people/sex-workers-are-some-of-the-strongest-women-you-ll-meet-1.2179962

*On rights not rescue https://ravishly.com/2014/10/18/sex-workers-want-rights%E2%80%94not-rescue

*As as guest columnist  for  Maggie McNeills blog ‘The Honest Courtesan” https://maggiemcneill.wordpress.com/2014/04/14/guest-columnist-laura-lee/

*Supporting National Ugly Mugs in a short video:  https://www.theguardian.com/voluntary-sector-network/video/2014/dec/02/uk-network-sex-work-projects-charity-awards-2014

*Giving evidence to the Northern Irish Justice Committee:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ve-0ykxdyS0&t=214s

*Sister sex worker rights campaigner and broadcaster Charlotte-Rose created a special edition of her Radio show with a moving testimony to Laura. Watch or listen to it at:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QXH3_SyrDBY&feature=youtu.be

What has shone through the tributes to Laura, alongside her massive contribution to the struggle for  social justice for sex workers, is the warmth, kindness, courteous and generosity of spirit with which she related to others. Laura has left a legacy of sex worker rights activism that will continue to inspire the BtG team and many others,  we honor you.  At this time our thoughts and condolences are with her daughter, family, friends & the sex work community.

N.B. you can give to help with funeral costs and to provide some finaicial help to her family via Just Giving:  https://www.justgiving.com/crowdfunding/glasgaelauralee?utm_id=107&utm_term=zbb8MPExg

Behind the Screen-new journal article

The Beyond the Gaze team are pleased that the first academic journal article based on research findings from the project has been published. ‘Behind the Screen-Commercial sex, digital spaces and working online’ has been published in the Journal Technology and Society.  The rise of the internet and related digital technologies has had a profound impact on many aspects of people’s working and social lives, including the buying and selling of sexual services. In addition to providing new ways to advertise for sex workers who provide services to clients in person, the internet has also seen the development of completely new forms of commercial sex (like webcamming) that take place entirely in an online environment. Using the largest datasets created in the UK, this article explores how sex workers use the internet and digital technologies to facilitate the range of different services that they offer. It looks at the ways in which the internet has improved the ability for sex workers to organize and professionalize their services.  At the same time the article explores some of the challenges and potential (new) harms that arise for sex workers working online. It explores the diversity of ways in which sex workers interact with online and digital technology. This paper advances knowledge by: a) demonstrating how the shift to online working developed for sex workers and their views on the importance of the internet to their working lives; b) exposing the different marketing strategies adopted by sex workers, including the use of social media and personal websites in building an online brand; and c) discussing the impact of online reviews and the wider culture of reviewing commercial sexual services.

The Economic and Social Research Council who funded BtG have also provided funding so that the article is available open access. ESRC logoClick here to access the full article BehindtheScreenTechinSociety



This builds on findings published in the book based on some of our research findings ‘Internet Sex Work’ available on Amazon https://www.amazon.co.uk/Internet-Sex-Work-Beyond-Gaze/dp/3319656295